The body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. Commonly known as the belly.
The movement of a limb or other part away from the midline of the body, or from another part.
The quality or state of being able. The skills and qualities which make it possible for you to achieve a task.
A place of study or training in a special field.
Begin to move more quickly.
The quality or state of being accepted or acceptable. The acceptance of responsibility.
A way of life that integrates physical activity into your everyday routines.
Lasting a short time. Having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course – acute illness. Characterised by sharpness or severity of sudden onset- acute pain.
The act or process of adapting to a process.
The movement of a limb or other part towards the midline of the body or towards another part.
A hormone that stimulates metabolism, increases alertness and increases blood pressure.
Brisk exercise that promotes the circulation of oxygen through the blood and is associated with an increased rate of breathing.
The ability to quickly change body position or direction of the body and effectively while under control.
Any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange.
A physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power.
An emotional disorder characterised by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat.
(Ventral) Refers to the ‘front’.
Anterior Oblique Sling
The anterior oblique sling consists of the external and internal obliques, the opposite side adductor muscle, and the connecting adductor abdominal fascia.
The scientific study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.
A person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina.
The quality or state of being aware; knowledge and understanding that something is happening or exists.
An even distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady.
Ball and Socket Joint
Where the ball-shaped surface of one rounded bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone. It permits free movement in numerous axes. E.g. hip joint, shoulder joint.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The minimum level of energy the body needs when at rest to function effectively including the respiratory and circulatory organs, neural system, liver, kidneys and other organs.
A standard or point of reference against which things may be compared.
Maximum circumference of arm, between shoulder and elbow.
Bioelectrical Imedance Analysis (BIA)
Method used to estimate body composition. Passes a weak electrical current through the body to measure impedance.
The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of humans.
Using only two legs for walking.
The familiar red fluid in the body that contains white and red blood cells, platelets, proteins, and other elements.
“Body Mass Index” is a key index for relating height to weight. BMI is calculated by weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared.
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies.
Body Fat Percentage
The amount of body fat as a proportion of your body weight.
A person’s perception of their physical self and their thoughts and feelings, positive or negative.
Any of the pieces of hard whitish tissue making up the skeleton in humans.
The amount of bone (bone mineral level, calcium or other minerals) in the body.
The process of taking air into and expelling it from the lungs. BLOG: “The secret weapon to optimal performance and wellness; Breathing”
They branch out from the trachea (windpipe) to take air to the lungs.
Circumference at forward most protruding point above the waist.
A unit of energy, often used as a measurement of the amount of energy that food provides.
Maximum circumference of leg, between knee and ankle.
A major source of energy in the diet.
A colourless, odourless gas found in our atmosphere.
Another term for circulatory system. organ system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.
Cartilaginous joints contain cartilage and allow very little movement; there are two types of cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphyses.
Also known as the neck; is comprised of seven vertebral bodies (C1-C7) that make up the upper most part of the spine. These vertebrae connect the spine to the skull.
Shallow, upper breathing is part of the typical stress response. Breathing that takes in a small amount of air.
A practitioner of the system of complementary medicine based on the diagnosis and manipulative treatment of misalignments of the joints.
A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver and other cells and found in certain foods, such as food from animals, like dairy products, eggs, and meat.
Continuing or occurring again and again for a long time. Suffering from a chronic disease.
The system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands.
A circular motion.
The distance around the outside of something round or rounded.
Technical term for collarbone. Typically serving to link the scapula and sternum.
To go up, or to go towards the top of something; ascend.
Involving conscious intellectual activity (such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering).
The main structural protein found in skin and other connective tissues, widely used in purified form for cosmetic surgical treatments.
An event where athletes are put through tests to showcase their athletic ability. Also known as a Draft Combine.
Exposing localised regions of the body to different levels of pressure. BLOG “Why elite athletes need custom compression”
Aware of and responding to one’s surroundings.
Consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone to allow angular movement along two axes. (between radius and carpel bones in the wrist).
The ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently.
(Frontal Plane) divides the body into anterior and posterior sections of the body/span.
Relating to a large company or group.
Nature’s built-in alarm system and body’s main stress hormone. It works with certain parts of the brain to control mood, motivation, and fear. It is best know for helping fuel your body’s ‘fight-or-flight’ instinct in a crisis, but cortisol plays an important role in a number of things your body does.
Move forward on the hands and knees or by dragging the body close to the ground.
The process for analysing sets of data.
The act or process of releasing from pressure or compression.
Extending far from some surface or area.
Refers to movement in an inferior direction.
A dome-shaped, muscular and membranous structure that separates the thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavities in mammals. It plays a major role in breathing.
An expert on diet and nutrition.
The system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products.
Situated away from the centre of the body or from the point of attachment.
A thing that prevents someone from concentrating on something else.
Refers to flexion at the ankle, so that the foot points superiorly.
Characterised by or exhibiting dysfunction; not functioning properly: marked by impaired or abnormal functioning.
The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
The ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compressed; stretchiness.
A protein that coils and recoils like a spring within the elastic fibres of connective tissue and accounts for the elasticity of structures such the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, intestines, tendons, and ligaments.
Refers to movement in a superior direction (e.g. shoulder shrug).
A network of glands in your body that make the hormones that help cells talk to each other. They’re responsible for almost every cell, organ, and function in your body.
The ability to keep doing something difficult, unpleasant, or painful for a long time. The ability to withstand hardship or adversity.
The amount of energy someone needs to complete physical actions (e.g. breathing, digesting food, circulating blood etc.).
The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.
Involves the movement of the sole away from the median plane – so that the sole faces in a lateral direction.
The system responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis. There are several parts of the body that are involved in this process, such as sweat glands, the liver, the lungs and the kidney system.
Activity requiring physical effort, carried out to sustain or improve health and fitness.
Breathe out. BLOG: “The secret weapon to optimal performance and wellness; Breathing”
Exocrine glands are cellular sub-structures, organs, in a body that provide a system to secrete substances out and external to the body. They are distinct from the other type of gland, endocrine, in that exocrine gland secretions end up external to the body, while endocrine secretions go into the bloodstream/internal.
Refers to a movement that increases the angle between two body parts.
Movement of a joint, around its long axis, away the midline of the body.
A structural scaffold that directs cell adhesion and migration, as well as regulating cellular growth, metabolism and differentiation signals. The main function of the extracellular matrix is to provide structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Extra-Cellular Water (ECW)
The amount of water located outside the cells. Roughly makes up one third of the fluid within the body.
The soft tissue component of the connective tissue system that permeates the human body.
Fascia is the soft tissue component of the connective tissue system that permeates the human body. It forms a whole-body continuous three-dimensional matrix of structural support.
One of the three macronutrients; functions include storing energy, insulation and protecting the vital organs.
Fat Free Mass
The total of all your body components except fat.
The actual weight of fat within your body.
Extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness.
A psychiatric model that describes how individuals develop and maintain chronic musculoskeletal pain as a result of attentional processes and avoidant behaviour based on pain-related fear.
Contain fibrous connective tissue and cannot move; fibrous joints include sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.
Equipment. ProScanner captures a 360 degree avatar of a clients’ body in just 35 seconds.
The state of being physically fit and healthy.
A sudden appearance or worsening of the symptoms of a disease or condition.
The quality of bending easily without breaking.
The action of bending or the condition of being bent, especially the bending of a limb or joint.
A centre of activity, attraction, or attention; the point of concentration.
Maximum circumference of arm, between elbow and wrist.
An activity that is natural to or the purpose of a person or thing.
The ability to move the body with proper muscle and joint function for effortless, pain-free movement. BLOG: “Let’s Get Functional”
Forming a necessary base or core.
A person’s manner of walking.
Relating to or characteristic of a whole group or class.
A type of sugar, comes from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body.
Any of the large muscles of the buttocks.
The object of a person’s ambition or effort; an aim or desired result.
Global Performance Testing Quality Assurance. Accreditation and quality assurance around reliability and integrity of human performance data and services.
The force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the centre of the earth.
A settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up.
The condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness, or the state of being well.
In a good physical or mental condition; in good health.
The distance from the top to the bottom of something.
A joint between bones (as at the elbow) that permits motion in only one plane (usually flexion and extension).
Circumference at rear most protruding point below the waist.
A group of muscles near the top of your thighs that are key players in moving your lower body. They let you walk, kick, bend, and swivel your hips.
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs.
The bone of the upper arm or forelimb, forming joints at the shoulder and the elbow.
The organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins. Organs include the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
The response of the body’s tissues and cells to the electrical current.
Inferior Vena Cava
A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart. There are two in humans, the inferior vena cava (carrying blood from the lower body) and the superior vena cava (carrying blood from the head, arms, and upper body).
A localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.
Breathe in (air, gas, smoke, etc.).
Consists of the skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. Its main function is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature.
The quality of being intense. The measurable amount of a property, such as force, brightness, or a magnetic field.
Movement of a joint, around its long axis, toward the midline of the body.
The pressure within the abdominal cavity.
The amount of water located inside the cells. Roughly makes up two thirds of the fluid within the bodyhe pressure within the abdominal cavity.
Involves the movement of the sole towards the median plane – so that the sole faces in a medial direction.
Done without will or conscious control.
These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces.
Run at a steady gentle pace.
Joints are junctions between bones that allow your body to move.
Push oneself off a surface and into the air by using the muscles in one’s legs and feet.
The notion that these joints and segments have an effect on one another during movement. When one is in motion, it creates a chain of events that affects the movement of neighbouring joints and segments.
Means away from the midline.
A broad flat superficial muscle chiefly of the middle and lower back that extends, adducts, and rotates the arm medially and draws the shoulder downward and backward.
A person employed to help people attain their goals in life.
The way in which a person lives.
More commonly known as the lower back. It’s the part of the spine comprised of five vertebral bodies (L1-L5) that extend from the lower thoracic spine (chest) to the sacrum (bottom of the spine).
A network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials. The primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport lymph, a fluid containing infection-fighting white blood cells, throughout the body.
A type of food (e.g. fat, protein, carbohydrate) required in large amounts in the diet.
A sense organ or cell that responds to mechanical stimuli such as touch or sound.
Means towards the midline.
Relating to the mind.
All of the processes that occur in the body that turn the food you eat into energy your body can use.
The ability to move or be moved freely and easily.
A learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
The act, process, or result of moving.
Refers to the three primary planes of motion in which the body can move. Sagittal, Frontal and Transverse.
A band of fibrous tissue in a human’s body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body.
The weight of muscle within the body. This includes the skeletal muscles, smooth muscles (such as cardiac and digestive muscles) and the water contained in these muscles.
The main function of the muscular system is movement, but it also helps stabilize our joints, maintain our posture and generate heat during activity. Movement of our body can be voluntary and controlled by the skeletal muscles, or it can be involuntary and controlled by smooth muscles.
Tracks of myofascial (connective) tissue that distribute stain, facilitate movement, and provide stability throughout the structures of the body.
A branch of manual medicine focused on the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain and associated conditions.
Breathing in through your nose.
A system of alternative medicine based on the theory that diseases can be successfully treated or prevented without the use of drugs, by techniques such as control of diet, exercise, and massage.
The midpoint of the neck, typically over the larynx.
The body’s communication system; nerves carry messages back and forth between the brain and all body parts.
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.
A baseline distribution for a score or measurement, and against which the score or measurement can be compared.
The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
A person who studies or is an expert in nutrition.
Having an excessive amount of body fat.
Alternate spelling for esophagus. a muscular tube that conveys food from the mouth to the stomach.
A differentiated structure (such as a heart, kidney) consisting of cells and tissues and performing some specific function in the human body.
A cell that makes bone. It does so by producing a matrix that then becomes mineralized.
A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption.
A system of complementary medicine involving the treatment of medical disorders through the manipulation and massage of the skeleton and musculature.
When your bones are weaker than normal but not so far gone that they break easily, which is the hallmark of osteoporosis.
A disease that makes bones become brittle, leading to a higher risk of breaks than in normal bone. Occurs when bones lose minerals, such as calcium, more quickly than the body can replace them, causing a loss of bone thickness (bone density or mass).
A chemical element found in the air as a colourless odourless tasteless gas that is necessary for life.
The part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles.
Pelvis, also called bony pelvis or pelvic girdle, in human anatomy, basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and the legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, the urinary bladder, and the internal sex organs.
The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
The action or process of performing a task or function.
The assessment of very different sets of functional movements or abilities.
An individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by setting goals and providing feedback and accountability to clients.
Instruction in the development and care of the body ranging from simple calisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics, and the performance and management of athletic games.
A general motor and sensory nerve on each side of the body that arises chiefly from the fourth cervical nerve, passes down through the thorax to the diaphragm.
Any form of exercise or movement.
A professional who performs the treatment of disease, injury, or deformity by physical methods such as massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery.
A system of exercises using special apparatus, designed to improve physical strength, flexibility, and posture, and enhance mental awareness.
Allows for rotation only (example neck, radius and ulnar).
Also called gliding joint or arthrodial joint, in anatomy, type of structure in the body formed between two bones in which the articular, or free, surfaces of the bones are flat or nearly flat, enabling the bones to slide over each other. (eg bones in the hand).
Refers extension at the ankle, so that the foot points inferiorly.
(Dorsal) Refers to the ‘back’.
Posterior Oblique Sling
This sling system consists of the latissimus dorsi, the gluteus maximus, and the inter-connecting thoracolumbar fascia.
A change in direction through a ‘sliding’ movement, forward, backward, left or right, from the centre of mass. A movement that does not bring a part of the body closer to the floor.
Where the orientation of a body part is misaligned to the rest of the body, either forwards or backwards. A movement that brings a part of the body closer to the floor.
The position in which someone holds their body when standing or sitting.
The ability to exert a maximal force in the shortest time possible.
The process of developing or moving gradually towards a more advanced state.
Rotation of the hand and forearm so that the palm faces backwards or downwards.
Perception or awareness of the position and movement of the body.
One of the three nutrients that provides calories to the body.
The action of extending a part of the body.
Situated nearer to the centre of the body or the point of attachment.
A pair of large muscles which run from the lumbar spine through the groin on either side and, with the iliacus, flex the hip.
An expert or specialist in psychology.
The scientific study of the human mind and its functions.
Surround and embrace millions of tiny air sacs, called alveoli, in your lungs. This is where your blood takes up oxygen from the air you inhale.
A vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The body’s deepest abdominal muscle, located at the very back of the abdominal wall (lower back).
The position where both hands and knees are on the ground.
The degree of excellence of something.
A system for ensuring a desired level of quality in the development, production, or delivery of products and services.
The act or process or an instance of reacting. A response to some treatment, situation, or stimulus.
Movements of the upper and lower extremities in opposition.
The regaining of or possibility of regaining something lost or taken away. The restoration or return to health from sickness.
The action of restoring someone to health or normal life through training and therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or illness.
Also known as the urinary system, produces, stores and eliminates urine, the fluid waste excreted by the kidneys. The kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from blood. Urine travels from the kidneys through two thin tubes called ureters and fills the bladder.
The organs involved in producing offspring. In women, this system includes the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the cervix, and the vagina. In men, it includes the prostate, the testes, and the penis.
The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
The movement of air or dissolved gases into and out of the lungs.
The action of drawing something back or back in.
A tough sheath of tendons and ligaments that supports the arm at the shoulder joint.
A usual or fixed way of doing things.
Move at a speed faster than a walk, never having both or all the feet on the ground at the same time.
One of the bones forming the joint is shaped like a saddle with the other bone resting on it like a rider on a horse.
(Longitudinal plane) is an anatomical boundary that exists between the left and right sides of the body.
Relating to the shoulder or shoulder blade. It connects the humerus bone of the arm to the collarbone.
A person whose business it is to recognize and recruit persons of marked aptitude for a certain field or occupation, especially in entertainment or sports.
An individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviours necessary to produce specific performance abilities. It reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one’s own motivation, behaviour, and social environment.
The act or practice of talking to oneself, either aloud or silently and mentally – positive self-talk.
A cavity within a bone or other tissue, especially one in the bones of the face or skull connecting with the nasal cavities.
The framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organs. The human skeleton contains 206 bones, six of which are the tiny bones of the middle ear (three in each ear) that function in hearing.
The thin layer of tissue forming the natural outer covering of the body of a person.
The bony framework of the head, enclosing the brain and supporting the face; the skeleton of the head.
The rate at which someone or something moves or operates or is able to move or operate.
The large group of nerves which runs through the center of the spine and carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
A series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the small of the back, enclosing the spinal cord and providing support for the thorax and abdomen; the backbone.
A group of people formed for the purpose of playing sport.
Sports Business Manager
A person responsible for handling the business matters of athletes and sports teams.
A discipline that studies how the healthy human body works during exercise, and how sport and physical activity promote health and performance from cellular to whole body perspectives.
A person involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.
Run at full speed over a short distance.
The long flat bone in the upper middle of the front of the chest. The sternum articulates (comes together) with the cartilages of the first seven ribs and with the clavicle (collarbone) on either side.
The maximal force you can apply against a load.
Strength & Conditioning Coach
A fitness and physical performance professional who uses exercise prescription to improve the performance of competitive athletes.
A state of mental or emotional strain or tension. BLOG: “Don’t worry, be happy! Stress and 10 ways to let it go”
Of, relating to, or located near a surface.
Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces forward or upward.
Very small bones located specifically within the sutural joints between the cranial bones of the skull.
A part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the heart rate, constrict blood vessels, and raise blood pressure.
A connection between two bones consisting of a cartilage lined cavity filled with fluid. This articular cartilage functions to absorb shock and reduce friction during movement.
A group of people with different skills and different tasks, who work together on a common goal.
Tensegrity was a concept introduced by Buckminster Fuller. Thomas Myers saw the implications of this on the human body as an elision of ‘tension + integrity’. To indicate that the reliability of the structure derived from the balance of tension members. “Islands of compression floating in a balanced sea of tension”
Maximum circumference of leg, between the crotch and the knee.
Twelve vertebral segments (T1-T12). Runs from the base of the neck down to the abdomen and the only spinal region attached to the ribcage.
Propel (something) with force through the air by a movement of the arm and hand.
A mass or layer of cells usually of one kind that perform a special function and form the basic structural material of an animal or plant body.
Total Body Water (TBW)
The total amount of fluid in a person’s body expressed as a percentage of their body weight.
A large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
The act or process of following something or someone.
An imaginary dividing line that separates the superior and inferior sections of the body.
The thinner and longer of the two bones in the human forearm, on the side opposite to the thumb.
Also known as the renal system, produces, stores and eliminates urine, the fluid waste excreted by the kidneys. The kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from blood. Urine travels from the kidneys through two thin tubes called ureters and fills the bladder.
A nerve supplying the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), lungs, heart, esophagus, and intestinal tract, as far as the transverse portion of the colon. The vagus nerve also brings sensory information back to the brain from the ear, tongue, pharynx, and larynx. It’s the tenth cranial nerve.
Any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism.
The narrowest point between the hips and ribs.
Waist to Hip Ratio
Calculated by dividing waist circumference by hip circumference.
To advance or travel on foot at a moderate speed or pace. BLOG: “Walk This Way”
The state of being in good health.
The amount or quantity of heaviness or mass of something.
A decrease in body weight. BLOG: “The hidden benefits of weight loss no one talks about”
World Health Organisation.