Kilogram or kilogramme. A metric measure of mass or weight. A kg is the equivalent of 1,000g (grams) therefore someone weighing 60kg is the same as 60,000g (60kg x 1,000 = 60,000g)

Gram or gramme. A metric measure of mass or weight. Originally “the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of the 1/100th part of 1cm³, and at the temperature of melting ice” (4°C)

Pound. An imperial measure of units of mass or weight. The most common definition is the international avoirdupois pound that is divided in to 16 ounces (oz)

Ounce. An imperial measure of mass or weight. There are 16 ounces (oz) in a pound (lb) or it is equal to 28.35 grams (g)

Stone. An imperial measure of mass or weight. Used in England and other Germanic speaking countries a stone (st) is equal to 14 pounds (lb) or 6.30529318 kilograms (kg)

Kilometre or kilometer. A metric measure of length or distance. A kilometre (km) is equal to 1,000 metres (m), 0.62 miles (mi) or 3,281.5 feet (ft)

Metre or meter. A metric measure of length or distance. A metre (m) is equal to 100 centimetres (cm), 1,000 millimetres (mm) or approximately 39.37 inches (in)

Centimetre or centimeter. A measure of length in the metric system equal to 1/100th of a m (metre). If a distance was 2.5m then it would equate to 250cm (2.5m x 100 = 250cm)

Millimetre or millimeter. A metric measure of length or distance. A millimetre is equal to approximately 0.039 inch (in) and there are 10 millimetres (mm) to 1 centimetre (cm)

Mile. An English measure of length or distance. The English unit is equal to 1,760 yards (yd) and standardised to exactly 1,609.344 metres (m) in 1959

Yard. An imperial measure of length or distance. A yard (yd) is equal to 3 feet (ft) or 36 inches (in) and is standardised to 0.9144 metres (m)

Foot. An imperial measure of length or distance. A foot (ft) is exactly 12 inches (in) and there are 3 feet (ft) in a yard (yd). A foot (ft) is equal to 0.3048 metre (m)

Inch. An imperial measure of length or distance. There are 12 inches (in) in 1 foot (ft) and an inch (in) is equal to 25.4 millimetres (mm)

Litre or liter. A metric measure of volume. A litre is equal to 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm^{3}) or 1,000 millilitres (ml). There are 3.785411784 litres in 1 gallon (gal)

Millilitre or milliliter. A metric measure of volume. There are 1,000 millilitres in 1 litre. An official measure of a tablespoon (tbsp) is equal to 17.7581719 millilitres (ml)

Gallon. An imperial measure of volume. 1 Imperial gallon is equal to 4.546 litres (l) while the US standard gallon is equal to 3.7853 litres (l)

Fluid ounce. An imperial measure of volume. 1 Imperial fluid ounce is equal to 28.41 millilitres (ml) while 1 US fluid ounce is equal to 29.57 millilitres (ml) making it approximately 4% larger

Metre (or meter) per second. A measure of both speed and velocity. 1 mile per hour (mph) is equal to 0.44704 metres per second (m/s). 1 metre per second (m/s) is equal to 3.6 kilometres per hour (kph) or approximately 3.2808 feet per second

Kilometre (or kilometer) per hour. A metric measure of speed. A kilometre is an expression of the number of kilometres (km) travelled in 1 hour (hr). 100 kilometres per hour (kph) is equal to 62.14 miles per hour (mph)

Miles per hour. An imperial measure of speed. Light travels at approximately 670,616,629 miles per hour (mph). 1 mile per hour is equal to approximately 1.609344 kilometres per hour (kph)

Velocity. The rate of speed of action usually measures in metres per second (m/s). Velocity is not the same as speed and a change in velocity over time is called acceleration

Acceleration. The rate of change in velocity with respect to time usually measured in metres per seconds (m/s). Acceleration is often used in physics as the rate of increase of speed

Celsius. A measure of temperature. The Celsius scale is also known as the centigrade scale. The scale is based on zero degrees Celsius (0°C) for the freezing point and 100 degrees Celsius (100°C) for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. 0°C is equal to approximately +32°F

Fahrenheit. A measure of temperature. Based on zero degrees Fahrenheit (0°F) being the freezing point of a brine made of equal parts of ice, water and salt by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit. 0°F is equal to approximately -17.78°C

Average. A number expressing the central or typical value of a set of data. Also referred to as mode, median or mean, which is calculated by dividing the sum of the values in the set by their number

Greater than. A mathematical expression that donates inequality between two values. Remember that the larger number is “greater than” so is the wide end of the symbol. Example 10 > 5

Lesser than. A mathematical expression that donates inequality between two values. Remember that the smaller number is “lesser than” so is the narrow end of the symbol. Example 5 < 10

Greater than or equal to. A mathematical expression that donates inequality between two values. Example a ≥ b means that a is greater than or equal to b (or equivalently but not less than b)

Lesser than or equal to. A mathematical expression that donates inequality between two values. Example a ≤ b means that a is lesser than or equal to b (or equivalently but not more than b)

Equal to. A mathematical expression that donates equality between two values. Used in common calculations such as 1 + 1 = 2

Standard Deviation. A statistical measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation of data sets. A low SD indicates that the data points are close to the mean (expected) value while a high SD indicates a large spread of data over a wider range of values

Normative. Normative data is data from a reference population that establishes a baseline for a measure or comparison. Example: My 20m acceleration is 3.989 seconds (sec) and the “norm” for people of similar age, gender and experience from all data collected is 3.671 seconds (sec)

Range. A statistical expression of the difference between the largest and smallest values in a set of data. To find a range, organise data from highest to lowest value and then subtract the lowest value from the highest value and this will be your range

Percentage. A mathematical number or ratio expressed as fraction of 100 donated by the percentage sign (%). Usually used to determine the value against a whole for example a target of 10 metres (m) and a result of 8 metres (m) would mean an 80% result

Plus or minus. A mathematical expression with multiple meanings but in data science it defines a confidence interval, standard deviation or standard measure of error. Example in measuring the height of a human the result may be 183cm to 184cm therefore have a ±0.5cm standard measure of error

Distribution. The tilde symbol (~) is used in mathematics to express the distribution of values or equivalence relation or “similar to”

Diameter. A geometry expression for any straight line that passes through the centre of a circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. The diameter is twice the length of the radius

Seconds. A measure of time. In human performance tracking seconds are broken into tenths (1/10th or 0.1 sec), hundredths (1/100th or 0.01 sec) or thousandths (1/1000th or 0.001 sec). Thousandths of a second are referred to as milliseconds. There are 60 seconds (sec) in 1 minute (min)

Minutes. A measure of time. 1 minute (min) is equal to 60 seconds (sec) and is 1/60th of 1 hour (hr). There are 1,440 minutes (min) in a single day

Hour. A measure of time. 1 hour (hr) is equal to 60 minutes (min) or 3,600 seconds (sec). A day is equal to 24 hours (hr) and there are 8,766.15264 hours (hr) in a Tropical Year

Date. Specific period specified by a number normally including day, month and year. The way of displaying dates vary specifically between the US and European formats of mm/dd/yyyy (US) and dd/mm/yyyy (Europe). For the purpose of consistency GPTQA use the European format of dd/mm/yyyy

Body Fat Percentage. A calculation to determine the percentage of total mass of fat in the body. Calculation: Total Mass of Fat divided by Total Body Mass, multiplied by 100. BFP normally includes essential body fats and storage body fats

VO2Max. The measure of maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise. V = volume, O2 = oxygen and Max = maximum. Maximum oxygen consumption reflects cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance capacity in exercise performance

Body Mass Index. A measurement index of body fat based on a persons height and mass (weight). BMI is calculated as the body mass (weight) divided by the square of the body height. BMI is a traditional index for human catagorisation in to underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese however does not allow for differences in subjects such as ethnicity, athleticism etc.